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Abbess’ watch (late 16th)

In early pocket watches a variety of materials, shapes and types of decoration were employed. They were octagonal, oval, rectangular, book-shaped, or resembled flower buds and animals. Watches made in the form of a skull or a cross were to remind their owner and people who surrounded him of the transiency of life. The cross-watch is believed to have been invented in mid-16th century by French masters. It is known as the abbess’ watch and was meant for clergymen. They were usually decorated by scenes from the life of Christ or from the Bible.
rare cross-watch (abbess' watch)

Old timepieces evolution
Almost all watches of the late 18th century were made without cases. Double and triple cases remained popular only in England. But even there watches with several lids began to appear in the late 1820s, e.g. works by the English firm "Dol-ter". At the beginning of the 20th century Swiss watchmakers

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