Famous american railroad pocket watches
FAMOUS AMERICAN RAILROAD POCKET WATCHES
It was the end of the nineteenth century in America. The car had not yet invented. Kodak camera has not yet been launched on the market. Women wore long dresses, and the main method of washing clothes was a washboard. Few homes had electricity, and even radio have not yet entered into their lives. President was Benjamin Harrison. Of course, those days are past were not quite so simple as most of the memories. They were slower, yes, because to get from one place to another takes time. U.S. Postal Service was the main form of communication, connecting the country, because America is slowly moving to the 20th century.
Great importance in that era was the railroad. The huge success with 1830’s were puffing giant black locomotive, which belched steam and fire, moving up and down the countryside. In fact, the train brought many new things in life and hope to people across the country, delivering products and food, transporting people from one city to another, delivering mail, and ensuring the democratic process by allowing presidential candidates to meet and talk with people in every state. Indeed, each station keeps the memories and has a connection with each family.
It opened June 15, 1892, the Central Railway of Illinois served as the beginning of the examination watches. Employees are now required to check their watches for a quarterly review and comparison with the standard weekly time with various local inspectors, who were appointed for this purpose. A minimum standard of excellent quality, adopted by the company for watches, was supposed to include: a mechanism with 15 stones and a patented controller that is adapted to changes in temperature, variations in time should not exceed 30 seconds per week.
Within the 1800’s America’s commerce relied on our railroad system, and railroad safety relied on accurate timekeeping. In 1887 the American Railway Association defined the fundamental standard for watches. It required a tragedy however, to produce common acceptance of stringent precision and sturdiness standards for that watches accustomed to regulate the daily operation of yankee railroads. The greatest impetus would be a terrible train wreck around the Lake Shoreline and Michigan Southern Railway in Kipton, Ohio an April 19, 1891. Among the engineers watches had stopped for 4 minutes! By 1893 stringent standards for railroad watches have been adopted by just about all railroads.
These standards read, simply:
“…open faced, size 16 or 18, have no less than 17 jewels, modified to a minimum of five positions, keep time precisely to within thirty seconds per week, modified to temps of 34 °F (1 °C) to 100 °F (38 °C), possess a double curler, steel escape wheel, lever set, regulator, winding stem at 12 o’clock, and also have bold black Arabic numbers on the whitened dial, with black hands.”
Famous American railroad pocket watches are unmatched in quality and reliability.
What kind of watches? No easy answer to this question. Then America numbered from 500 to 1000 railroads and each used many different rules and specifications. Some railroads have used only part of the requirements of the above. Rules same railroad and watch evolve and change from year to year. At the end of the 1860th mechanism Pennsylvania Railroad Co. has been patented and was branded “Pennsylvania Railroad Co.” on the plates and “BW Raymond” on the mechanism. Mechanism made Elgin, was 18 caliber, with 15 stones, with a winder and a lever to set the time. In 1887 the American railroad companies had a meeting to determine the requirements for standard time and inspection timepieces. In the spring of 1894 and in recent years were first taken of the company, American Waltham Watch Co “A systematic examination of clocks of the railroad. The provision reads “… watches Waltham, specially designed for use by the railroad …”. Regulations 1892 provided for the type of watches from 17 stones and a double roller. In February 1894 «United States Watch Co. Waltham» watches manufactured and added to” The engineers and conductors of the railroad: Watches Brand “President” is a high-quality nickel, 18 gauge plate, with a crown and a lever to adjust the time, adapted to different temperature, isotope and accuracy in any position. The company guarantees that the mechanism would have differences of less than six seconds in a month. ”
Prior to 1893 requirements for clocks railroad was individual for each railway. Approximately in 1893 the General Board of Railways have introduced new guidelines. U.S. watches manufacturers nervously awaited these guidelines. Some companies have been vague in its instructions, and some was not at all.
Hours of caliber 18 or 16, were at least 17 stones, adapted, at least for five terms, kept accurate to within 30 seconds a week. The clock was adjusted to a temperature from 34 to 100 degrees Fahrenheit, have a double crown, steel plate, the regulator set the time, micrometric regulator, watch brand on the back of the plate was recorded simply the Arabic numbers printed in black on white disks.
American industry was forced to make clocks of just such a tool that meets these requirements. Hours for the railroad were phenomenal chronometer and long life and maintenance. Making a pocket watch was much more difficult than the development of normal watches, due to the fact that ordinary clocks are always in the same position and are always under constant force, while the pocket watch had to be more accurate, while in several positions. Since 1875-80, the employees were required to buy their own timepieces.
After the 1893 standards of pocket watches have been taken by some companies for new watches. While each company had its own individual directive standards, many included the main recommendations of the commission.
One of the participants in the development of standards for watches was Webb C. Ball of Cleveland, Ohio, Inspector watches for more than 125,000 miles railroad in the U.S., Mexico, and Canada. Ball had been authorized officials of the railroad to help establish a system of assessment clocks. After the Ball presented the guidelines, most American manufacturers have adopted these standards, and soon became available a list of manufacturers, carrying out these requirements.
According to the instructions, if the clock is late or gone ahead by 30 seconds after 7 – 14 days, they should have been delivered to regulate or repair. Engineers and conductors filled the full report. All repairs and controls were carried out by experienced and approved by the watchmakers; inspections conducted by authorized inspectors.
Because this system was adopted, U.S. manufacturers began producing pocket watches for the railroad of excellent quality, the travelers were confident in their security, and indeed the number of rail accidents occurring as a result of mistakes timepieces, was minimized.
Prior to the 1890th, some companies already have standards and issued lists of watches approved for use on their railways. Included in the list was Waltham 18-caliber 1883 model, and BW Raymond, 18 caliber, both in open and closed cabinet with a lever or a chain.
By the middle of the 1890th enclosure has to have the same chain. Hours, approved at the time included Waltham, 18 gauge, 1892 model, Elgin, the seventh model, and Hamilton, 17 stones, with an opening front cover, and a lever for setting the time.
By 1900, have also required a double roller, trays, sapphire and steel plate with the opportunity to be at least five positions.
Early mechanisms of Ball Watch Co., Made by Howard, used the initials of the organizations of railway workers, such as “BLE Standart” and “BLF Standart.” Ball also used the trademark “999” and the “Official Railroad Standard.” Some clocks may be marked “loaners”. They were issued by the inspectors railroad, when the clock needed repair.
By 1920 clocks 18 gauge lost popularity among the conductors, and by 1950 most companies railroad replaced them all. In 1936 the duty on Swiss watches was reduced by 50 percent, and by 1950 the Swiss imports reached a level of five million per year. In 1969 were sold last American pocket watches Hamilton Watch Co. model 992B.
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